Near the 100th anniversary of the discovery of ferroelectricity, so-called sliding ferroelectricity has been proposed and confirmed recently in a series of experiments that have stimulated remarkable interest. Such ferroelectricity exists widely and exists only in two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals stacked layers, where the vertical electric polarization is switched by in-plane interlayer sliding. Reciprocally, interlayer sliding and the “ripplocation” domain wall can be driven by an external vertical electric field. The unique combination of intralayer stiffness and interlayer slipperiness of 2D van der Waals layers greatly facilitates such switching while still maintaining environmental and mechanical robustness at ambient conditions. In this perspective, we discuss the progress and future opportunities in this behavior. The origin of such ferroelectricity as well as a general rule for judging its existence are summarized, where the vertical stacking sequence is crucial for its formation. This discovery broadens 2D ferroelectrics from very few material candidates to most of the known 2D materials. Their low switching barriers enable high-speed data writing with low energy cost. Related physics like Moiré ferroelectricity, the ferroelectric nonlinear anomalous Hall effect, and multiferroic coupling are discussed. For 2D valleytronics, nontrivial band topology and superconductivity, their possible couplings with sliding ferroelectricity via certain stacking or Moiré ferroelectricity also deserve interest. We provide critical reviews on the current challenges in this emerging area.